Blog

Scientists found out how cancer cells can shrug off physical constraints on growth and spread

April 13, 2018

Researchers have uncovered how malignancy cells can break free of the physical limitations forced by their surroundings so as to develop and spread around the body.

The exploration could point to better approaches to treat or keep the spread of malignancy cells, which is the greatest reason for growth demise.

Researchers at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, found that tumor cells that spread around the body have a broken switch which constantly initiates a key particle called YAP.

YAP goes about as a mechano-sensor, enabling cells to feel the grid around them, which they can get a handle on onto to move around tissues in the body.

The new investigation is distributed in the diary Cell Systems and was subsidized by Cancer Research UK and The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) itself.

Regularly cell development is smothered by contact with different cells, yet YAP can defeat these physical restrictions by turning on different qualities that are typically turned off.

In many cells, YAPs action is precisely managed - however the specialists found that tumor cells that spread can deliver YAP constantly, helping them to conquer the physical hindrances to development.

The ICR group efficiently turned off 950 distinct qualities in disease cell lines developed in the research center to work out which ones affected YAP flagging. They found that it was incompletely controlled by a particle called beta-PIX.

Beta-PIX supports YAP action as the cell ties to the extracellular network while traveling through tissue.

At the point when the analysts constrained the cells to stay adhered to the network - as though the cells had licked a frigid shaft - YAP movement was considerably higher. Be that as it may, when beta-PIX atoms were exhausted, YAP action was enormously diminished.

To discover how YAP action was controlled in malignancy cells, the group took a gander at triple-negative bosom growth cells in the lab that were either gotten from an essential tumor or from a site of inaccessible spread.

At the point when the specialists debilitated the beta-PIX pathway in growth cells from the essential tumor, YAP neglected to actuate - as would be normal.

Be that as it may, when they did likewise to the metastatic cells, YAP activated.

This recommends intrusive malignancy cells have broken the pathway that connections beta-PIX to YAP, enabling them to manage elevated amounts of YAP notwithstanding when not bound to the encompassing grid.

Study pioneer Dr Chris Bakal, Leader of the Dynamical Cell Systems Team at the ICR, stated: "Our exploration indicates how malignancy cells that have turned out to be intrusive are capable conquered the typical imperatives on cell development. Growth cells that have spread around the body have a switch which is stuck on - enabling them to deliver an atom called YAP constantly. This enables them to continue developing and spreading all through the body, overlooking the physical controls that would regularly stop this occurrence."

"Seeing more about the physical procedures which compel and control the development and development of cells can open up energizing new roads for disease treatment, which may have been missed as of not long ago."

Dr Emma Smith, science data director at Cancer Research UK, stated: "When growth spreads its significantly more hard to treat. This examination recognizes the signs that can turn out badly in growth cells, helping them to break free from the tumor.

"Seeing more about how growth spreads could be an essential initial move towards new medicines, yet additionally work is expected to see whether obstructing these signs can stop malignancy spreading in individuals."

How a Sandwich,Direct and Indirect ELISA Works

April 1, 2018

Today, I am will talk a smidgen about the idea driving Elisa which are exceptionally regular lab strategy and it will be useful to know how it functions for various reasons whether its a class you are taking or a system that youre endeavoring to ace.

So fundamentally what would begin with is taking a gander at a few examples. If we somehow happened to zoom in on them we would see that theres a blend of proteins within every one of these tubes and each unique kind of protein is spoken to by an alternate shading or diverse state of the squiggly line. What I need to do is measure the convergence of a specific protein. So for this situation I need to know the amount of the green protein I have in every one of these tubes thus essentially I need some approach to gauge that. We can diagram it for every one of the examples. Elizas are extremely an effective method for doing that. To see how the Eliza functions we need to realize what a neutralizer is in the fundamental way that immunizer works Basically, antibodies are proteins that the resistant framework makes and whats exceptional around a counter acting agent are they have these extremely sticky areas that sticks particularly implying that they just can adhere to specific things or just certain shapes and these things which typically stick to infections and microbes. They adhere to our protein of interests. At the point when our protein of intrigue comes into closeness of the counter acting agent it adheres irreversibly to alternate proteins since they have an alternate shape. They dont adhere to this specific counter acting agent, they may adhere to an alternate one yet this one just remain that protein so we can utilize that neutralizer or one like it to recognize the amount of the protein there is in these examples and keeping in mind the end goal to dissect, one the thing we truly need to begin with is something many refer to as an Eliza plate. Eliza plate is fundamentally a 96-well plate that has an extraordinary surface which ties protein truly firmly. In the event that we take our proteins from our example and place it into one of the wells of this plate then what will happen is after some time the proteins will kind of settle and adhere to the surface of each well of that plate. At that point what we can do is including one of these antibodies and would call it a location counter acting agent since what it has is this little green thing speaking to a protein that we can adhere to these antibodies and the catalyst can create a shading change which enables us to gauge the amount of our example there is. What we do then is including the recognition counter acting agent which the proteins have adhered to the surface of each well. Subsequent to including the location immune response and over the long haul, the neutralizer will stick particularly to the protein of intrigue and afterward after wash away the additional unbound discovery immunizer. Next we can do is including a specific synthetic which is clear and however when it responds with the extraordinary compound adhered to the identification immune response, it changes to a blue shading and after that on the off chance that we include some corrosive, the blue shading changes to a yellow and at last by estimating how much yellow shading we have, we would then be able to decide how much protein there was. Theres an immediate connection between's the measure of the yellow shading that is delivered and the measure of our unique protein of enthusiasm for the example. So this method is known as a direct Eliza and "direct" alludes to the way that the discovery immunizer adheres specifically to the protein of intrigue.

The following thing we need to talk is whats an aberrant divisor and a circuitous partners. It fundamentally works a similar way. So we simply need to go down a few stages to when we adhered our proteins to the dialyzer plate and the aberrant Eliza makes utilization of two antibodies rather than one. The first is the essential identification immunizer and that counter acting agent is much the same as in the last slide with the direct Eliza. It adheres straightforwardly to the protein of intrigue. In any case, theres no catalyst adhered to it now. what we need to do at that point is present a moment immune response called the optional identification counter acting agent and after that neutralizer will adhere to the principal immunizer. It doesnt stick to whatever else so essentially this gives us somewhat greater adaptability as far as picking antibodies that we can use to identify diverse proteins. There are a few focal points to utilizing two antibodies rather than one which Im not going to go into the present moment but rather the fundamental thought is that we needed to utilize two antibodies and the inevitable concoction response and the protein that progressions the shading from clear to blue and afterward in the end with corrosive to yellow. All that is occurring more distant far from our protein of intrigue yet this thought is the same in that the measure of yellow is as yet corresponding straightforwardly with the measure of our unique protein. So the term backhanded for aberrant partners that originates from the way that the auxiliary location immune response is adhering by implication to the protein of enthusiasm rather than adhering specifically to it. So one thing that I mentioned is that theres a great deal of exhaust space between the protein. So one thing that will happen is whether we dont some way or another conceal that void space, our identification antibodies will adhere to those unfilled spaces and give us a false estimation implying that we feel that theres protein there when its extremely simply purge space. So the progression that I didnt specify with a specific end goal to maintain a strategic distance from disarray before is essentially called a blocking step where you include a smidgen of a reagent. Typically its only a protein, similar to ox-like serum egg whites which isn't the protein of enthusiasm for your examination, so you simply include some of that additional protein in and it conceals all the unfilled space and afterward starting now and into the foreseeable future, you can proceed with the Eliza as I let you know previously.

I need to discuss is something many refer to as sandwich Eliza and that is really what this article will be covering. So what precisely is a sandwich Eliza? Well essentially, the ideas are all the same, the main contrast is before we include our example, we first include something many refer to as the catch counter acting agent and the catch immune response is the same as before it just adheres particularly to our protein of intrigue. Presently the reason we include the catch immunizer first is on account of we need it to be the main thing that adheres to the Eliza plate. After the catch counter acting agent sticks, would wash away all the overabundance and afterward we can obstruct the surface simply like previously. The reason this is capable is on the grounds that now we can include our example and simply our protein of intrigue will adhere to that catch counter acting agent, so the various proteins are simply going to wash away and this gives us significantly greater affectability since now we can truly catch the majority of the protein of enthusiasm for our example. Would get significantly greater affectability with this procedure. Starting now and into the foreseeable future everything is practically the same as the direct and the aberrant Eliza in that you simply include some location antibodies and the shading change is delivered and that corresponds with the first measure of protein in the example. The main contrast between the sandwich Eliza is that we began with coding a catch counter acting agent thus the protein of intrigue truly gets sandwiched between these two proteins which is the reason its called the sandwich Eliza. I trust that can illuminate how these diverse Elizas will function

Complement System MBL (Lectin) ELISA

February 20, 2018

Background

The complement system plays an essential role in chronic, autoimmune and infectious disease. There are three pathways of complement activation, namely the classical, the alternative and the MBL pathway.

Impaired complement activity causes humans to become susceptible to repetitive fulminant or severe infections and may contribute to development of autoimmune disease. Inappropriate activation of complement contributes to chronic inflammation and tissue injury.

Technical Information

TheMBL Complement assay combines principles of the hemolytic assay for complement activation with the use of labeled antibodies specific for neoantigen produced as a result of complement activation. The amount of neoantigen generated is proportional to the functional activity of complement pathways.

In the Complement Screen MP kit the wells of the microtitre strips are coated with specific activators of the MBL pathway. Serum is diluted in diluent containing specific blocker to ensure that only the MBL pathway is activated. During the incubation of the subject's serum in the wells, complement is activated by the specific coating.

The wells are then washed and C5b-9 is detected with a specific alkaline phosphatase labelled antibody to the neoantigen expressed during MAC formation.

After a further washing step, detection of specific antibodies is obtained by incubation with alkaline phosphatase substrate solution. The amount of complement activation correlates with the colour intensity and is measured in terms of absorbance (optical density (OD))

Kit Components and Storage

- One frame with green break-apart wells (12x8) sealed in a foil pack with a desiccation sachet. The wells have been coated with mannan.

- 35 mL Diluent MP (Dil MP), labelled green.

- 13 mL conjugate containing alkaline phosphatase-labelled antibodies to C5b-9 (blue colour).

- 13 mL Substrate solution ready to use.

- 30 mL wash solution 30x concentrated.

- 0,2 mL negative control (NC) containing human serum. (to be diluted as for a subject's serum sample).

- 0,2 mL positive control (PC) containing freezed dried human serum, see “Reconstitution of positive control”, IFU

All reagents in the kit are ready for use except washing solution and controls. The reagents should be stored at 2-8° C except the positive control.

The positive control should be stored at -20° C.

Why the Measurement of Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs)

February 14, 2018

In the past century, pharmaceutical drugs have been chemical substances with a certain well-known chemical formula. These chemical substances have been rather unspecific and have shown considerable side effects. During the last two decades, several pharmaceutical companies have developed well-designed, highly specific antibodies for therapeutic use. These Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) show very little or no side effects. Therefore they are used in many different medical areas with great success. The main areas are:Rheumatology/Autoimmune Disorders (Rheumatoid Arthritis)

  • Gastrointestinal disorders (Crohn's Disease)
  • Oncology (Breast and Colon Cancer, Myeloma)
  • Dermatology (Psoriasis, Melanoma)
  • Ophthalmology (Macular Degeneration)
  • Infectious disease (RSV)
  • Bone disease (Osteoporosis)

The most widely used mAb drugs are designed to tightly bind TNF alpha in subjects. This is important as free TNF alpha will trigger inflammation and therefore finally will destroy the cells. If TNF alpha (which is called the target) is tightly bound to the mAb, it is inactivated and the clinical symptoms of the illness are significantly improved.
When a subject is treated with such mAbs, it may be useful to measure the concentration of these drugs which still are free and represent the capacity of the drug for catching the target (e.g. TNF alpha).

This is exactly what we achieve with our drug test kits coded AA.

In these kits we are coating the microtiter plates (MTP) with the target molecule (e.g. TNF alpha). This immobilized target will catch all free drug molecules from the sample during the first incubation. During the following incubation, a conjugate will label the immobilized drug and can be detected by adding TMB. In such an assay design, the immobilized target (e.g. TNF alpha) of course will bind to any drug which is specific for this target. In order to avoid this unspecific binding we also have developed an alternative ELISA type which is using a monoclonal antibody from our own development as a catcher on the surface of the MTP. This assay type only and specifically is measuring one drug and does not cross react with any other drug. The code for such an assay type in our product range is AB.

Blog

Scientists found out how cancer cells can shrug off physical constraints on growth and spread

April 13, 2018

Researchers have uncovered how malignancy cells can break free of the physical limitations forced by their surroundings so as to develop and spread around the body.

The exploration could point to better approaches to treat or keep the spread of malignancy cells, which is the greatest reason for growth demise.

Researchers at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, found that tumor cells that spread around the body have a broken switch which constantly initiates a key particle called YAP.

YAP goes about as a mechano-sensor, enabling cells to feel the grid around them, which they can get a handle on onto to move around tissues in the body.

The new investigation is distributed in the diary Cell Systems and was subsidized by Cancer Research UK and The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) itself.

Regularly cell development is smothered by contact with different cells, yet YAP can defeat these physical restrictions by turning on different qualities that are typically turned off.

In many cells, YAPs action is precisely managed - however the specialists found that tumor cells that spread can deliver YAP constantly, helping them to conquer the physical hindrances to development.

The ICR group efficiently turned off 950 distinct qualities in disease cell lines developed in the research center to work out which ones affected YAP flagging. They found that it was incompletely controlled by a particle called beta-PIX.

Beta-PIX supports YAP action as the cell ties to the extracellular network while traveling through tissue.

At the point when the analysts constrained the cells to stay adhered to the network - as though the cells had licked a frigid shaft - YAP movement was considerably higher. Be that as it may, when beta-PIX atoms were exhausted, YAP action was enormously diminished.

To discover how YAP action was controlled in malignancy cells, the group took a gander at triple-negative bosom growth cells in the lab that were either gotten from an essential tumor or from a site of inaccessible spread.

At the point when the specialists debilitated the beta-PIX pathway in growth cells from the essential tumor, YAP neglected to actuate - as would be normal.

Be that as it may, when they did likewise to the metastatic cells, YAP activated.

This recommends intrusive malignancy cells have broken the pathway that connections beta-PIX to YAP, enabling them to manage elevated amounts of YAP notwithstanding when not bound to the encompassing grid.

Study pioneer Dr Chris Bakal, Leader of the Dynamical Cell Systems Team at the ICR, stated: "Our exploration indicates how malignancy cells that have turned out to be intrusive are capable conquered the typical imperatives on cell development. Growth cells that have spread around the body have a switch which is stuck on - enabling them to deliver an atom called YAP constantly. This enables them to continue developing and spreading all through the body, overlooking the physical controls that would regularly stop this occurrence."

"Seeing more about the physical procedures which compel and control the development and development of cells can open up energizing new roads for disease treatment, which may have been missed as of not long ago."

Dr Emma Smith, science data director at Cancer Research UK, stated: "When growth spreads its significantly more hard to treat. This examination recognizes the signs that can turn out badly in growth cells, helping them to break free from the tumor.

"Seeing more about how growth spreads could be an essential initial move towards new medicines, yet additionally work is expected to see whether obstructing these signs can stop malignancy spreading in individuals."

How a Sandwich,Direct and Indirect ELISA Works

April 1, 2018

Today, I am will talk a smidgen about the idea driving Elisa which are exceptionally regular lab strategy and it will be useful to know how it functions for various reasons whether its a class you are taking or a system that youre endeavoring to ace.

So fundamentally what would begin with is taking a gander at a few examples. If we somehow happened to zoom in on them we would see that theres a blend of proteins within every one of these tubes and each unique kind of protein is spoken to by an alternate shading or diverse state of the squiggly line. What I need to do is measure the convergence of a specific protein. So for this situation I need to know the amount of the green protein I have in every one of these tubes thus essentially I need some approach to gauge that. We can diagram it for every one of the examples. Elizas are extremely an effective method for doing that. To see how the Eliza functions we need to realize what a neutralizer is in the fundamental way that immunizer works Basically, antibodies are proteins that the resistant framework makes and whats exceptional around a counter acting agent are they have these extremely sticky areas that sticks particularly implying that they just can adhere to specific things or just certain shapes and these things which typically stick to infections and microbes. They adhere to our protein of interests. At the point when our protein of intrigue comes into closeness of the counter acting agent it adheres irreversibly to alternate proteins since they have an alternate shape. They dont adhere to this specific counter acting agent, they may adhere to an alternate one yet this one just remain that protein so we can utilize that neutralizer or one like it to recognize the amount of the protein there is in these examples and keeping in mind the end goal to dissect, one the thing we truly need to begin with is something many refer to as an Eliza plate. Eliza plate is fundamentally a 96-well plate that has an extraordinary surface which ties protein truly firmly. In the event that we take our proteins from our example and place it into one of the wells of this plate then what will happen is after some time the proteins will kind of settle and adhere to the surface of each well of that plate. At that point what we can do is including one of these antibodies and would call it a location counter acting agent since what it has is this little green thing speaking to a protein that we can adhere to these antibodies and the catalyst can create a shading change which enables us to gauge the amount of our example there is. What we do then is including the recognition counter acting agent which the proteins have adhered to the surface of each well. Subsequent to including the location immune response and over the long haul, the neutralizer will stick particularly to the protein of intrigue and afterward after wash away the additional unbound discovery immunizer. Next we can do is including a specific synthetic which is clear and however when it responds with the extraordinary compound adhered to the identification immune response, it changes to a blue shading and after that on the off chance that we include some corrosive, the blue shading changes to a yellow and at last by estimating how much yellow shading we have, we would then be able to decide how much protein there was. Theres an immediate connection between's the measure of the yellow shading that is delivered and the measure of our unique protein of enthusiasm for the example. So this method is known as a direct Eliza and "direct" alludes to the way that the discovery immunizer adheres specifically to the protein of intrigue.

The following thing we need to talk is whats an aberrant divisor and a circuitous partners. It fundamentally works a similar way. So we simply need to go down a few stages to when we adhered our proteins to the dialyzer plate and the aberrant Eliza makes utilization of two antibodies rather than one. The first is the essential identification immunizer and that counter acting agent is much the same as in the last slide with the direct Eliza. It adheres straightforwardly to the protein of intrigue. In any case, theres no catalyst adhered to it now. what we need to do at that point is present a moment immune response called the optional identification counter acting agent and after that neutralizer will adhere to the principal immunizer. It doesnt stick to whatever else so essentially this gives us somewhat greater adaptability as far as picking antibodies that we can use to identify diverse proteins. There are a few focal points to utilizing two antibodies rather than one which Im not going to go into the present moment but rather the fundamental thought is that we needed to utilize two antibodies and the inevitable concoction response and the protein that progressions the shading from clear to blue and afterward in the end with corrosive to yellow. All that is occurring more distant far from our protein of intrigue yet this thought is the same in that the measure of yellow is as yet corresponding straightforwardly with the measure of our unique protein. So the term backhanded for aberrant partners that originates from the way that the auxiliary location immune response is adhering by implication to the protein of enthusiasm rather than adhering specifically to it. So one thing that I mentioned is that theres a great deal of exhaust space between the protein. So one thing that will happen is whether we dont some way or another conceal that void space, our identification antibodies will adhere to those unfilled spaces and give us a false estimation implying that we feel that theres protein there when its extremely simply purge space. So the progression that I didnt specify with a specific end goal to maintain a strategic distance from disarray before is essentially called a blocking step where you include a smidgen of a reagent. Typically its only a protein, similar to ox-like serum egg whites which isn't the protein of enthusiasm for your examination, so you simply include some of that additional protein in and it conceals all the unfilled space and afterward starting now and into the foreseeable future, you can proceed with the Eliza as I let you know previously.

I need to discuss is something many refer to as sandwich Eliza and that is really what this article will be covering. So what precisely is a sandwich Eliza? Well essentially, the ideas are all the same, the main contrast is before we include our example, we first include something many refer to as the catch counter acting agent and the catch immune response is the same as before it just adheres particularly to our protein of intrigue. Presently the reason we include the catch immunizer first is on account of we need it to be the main thing that adheres to the Eliza plate. After the catch counter acting agent sticks, would wash away all the overabundance and afterward we can obstruct the surface simply like previously. The reason this is capable is on the grounds that now we can include our example and simply our protein of intrigue will adhere to that catch counter acting agent, so the various proteins are simply going to wash away and this gives us significantly greater affectability since now we can truly catch the majority of the protein of enthusiasm for our example. Would get significantly greater affectability with this procedure. Starting now and into the foreseeable future everything is practically the same as the direct and the aberrant Eliza in that you simply include some location antibodies and the shading change is delivered and that corresponds with the first measure of protein in the example. The main contrast between the sandwich Eliza is that we began with coding a catch counter acting agent thus the protein of intrigue truly gets sandwiched between these two proteins which is the reason its called the sandwich Eliza. I trust that can illuminate how these diverse Elizas will function

Complement System MBL (Lectin) ELISA

February 20, 2018

Background

The complement system plays an essential role in chronic, autoimmune and infectious disease. There are three pathways of complement activation, namely the classical, the alternative and the MBL pathway.

Impaired complement activity causes humans to become susceptible to repetitive fulminant or severe infections and may contribute to development of autoimmune disease. Inappropriate activation of complement contributes to chronic inflammation and tissue injury.

Technical Information

TheMBL Complement assay combines principles of the hemolytic assay for complement activation with the use of labeled antibodies specific for neoantigen produced as a result of complement activation. The amount of neoantigen generated is proportional to the functional activity of complement pathways.

In the Complement Screen MP kit the wells of the microtitre strips are coated with specific activators of the MBL pathway. Serum is diluted in diluent containing specific blocker to ensure that only the MBL pathway is activated. During the incubation of the subject's serum in the wells, complement is activated by the specific coating.

The wells are then washed and C5b-9 is detected with a specific alkaline phosphatase labelled antibody to the neoantigen expressed during MAC formation.

After a further washing step, detection of specific antibodies is obtained by incubation with alkaline phosphatase substrate solution. The amount of complement activation correlates with the colour intensity and is measured in terms of absorbance (optical density (OD))

Kit Components and Storage

- One frame with green break-apart wells (12x8) sealed in a foil pack with a desiccation sachet. The wells have been coated with mannan.

- 35 mL Diluent MP (Dil MP), labelled green.

- 13 mL conjugate containing alkaline phosphatase-labelled antibodies to C5b-9 (blue colour).

- 13 mL Substrate solution ready to use.

- 30 mL wash solution 30x concentrated.

- 0,2 mL negative control (NC) containing human serum. (to be diluted as for a subject's serum sample).

- 0,2 mL positive control (PC) containing freezed dried human serum, see “Reconstitution of positive control”, IFU

All reagents in the kit are ready for use except washing solution and controls. The reagents should be stored at 2-8° C except the positive control.

The positive control should be stored at -20° C.

Why the Measurement of Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs)

February 14, 2018

In the past century, pharmaceutical drugs have been chemical substances with a certain well-known chemical formula. These chemical substances have been rather unspecific and have shown considerable side effects. During the last two decades, several pharmaceutical companies have developed well-designed, highly specific antibodies for therapeutic use. These Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) show very little or no side effects. Therefore they are used in many different medical areas with great success. The main areas are:Rheumatology/Autoimmune Disorders (Rheumatoid Arthritis)

  • Gastrointestinal disorders (Crohn's Disease)
  • Oncology (Breast and Colon Cancer, Myeloma)
  • Dermatology (Psoriasis, Melanoma)
  • Ophthalmology (Macular Degeneration)
  • Infectious disease (RSV)
  • Bone disease (Osteoporosis)

The most widely used mAb drugs are designed to tightly bind TNF alpha in subjects. This is important as free TNF alpha will trigger inflammation and therefore finally will destroy the cells. If TNF alpha (which is called the target) is tightly bound to the mAb, it is inactivated and the clinical symptoms of the illness are significantly improved.
When a subject is treated with such mAbs, it may be useful to measure the concentration of these drugs which still are free and represent the capacity of the drug for catching the target (e.g. TNF alpha).

This is exactly what we achieve with our drug test kits coded AA.

In these kits we are coating the microtiter plates (MTP) with the target molecule (e.g. TNF alpha). This immobilized target will catch all free drug molecules from the sample during the first incubation. During the following incubation, a conjugate will label the immobilized drug and can be detected by adding TMB. In such an assay design, the immobilized target (e.g. TNF alpha) of course will bind to any drug which is specific for this target. In order to avoid this unspecific binding we also have developed an alternative ELISA type which is using a monoclonal antibody from our own development as a catcher on the surface of the MTP. This assay type only and specifically is measuring one drug and does not cross react with any other drug. The code for such an assay type in our product range is AB.

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